Future Combat System Capabilities 2
Monday 4th September, 1630hrs–1800hrs
Warship integration – thinking outside the box
Mr Martyn Dickinson, Servowatch, United Kingdom
Information systems and their part in the command decision process are critical to the overall performance and successful outcome for any mission.
The collation of information, the distribution, display techniques and redundancy of systems can bring penalties in terms of cost, weight, space requirements and engineering overhead.
The constraint of budgets but increasing demand for mission capabilities creates an uneasy environment and compromises have to be made. With an increasing demand for highly capable OPV style vessels, the downsizing of mission systems and associated costs is proving to be difficult. Major contractors are finding it difficult to innovate and the traditional overhead values of those companies make product development for smaller platforms a difficult task.
Revolutionary electronic design is now capable of delivering a fully networked and highly redundant solution for all ship command and control systems. By integrating data from multiple sources into single workstations without the requirement for traditional server based networks, comprehensive mission information can be delivered to all ship control points. Mission success in the most extreme of conditions can be assured, complete with playback functionality for analysis or litigation purposes.
Where economy of scale, cost and manpower is required, but demands for achieving mission capabilities are increasing, the modern navy must start to think outside the box in order to achieve those goals. An effective mission management system is key to that success.
This paper will answer how that may be achieved.
The Future of Maritime Domain Awareness in Europe
Mr Steve Guest, Kongsberg Norcontrol IT, United Kingdom
This paper will discuss the latest status with the Maritime Navigation and Information Services (MarNIS) project.
MarNIS is an Integrated Research Project within the EU 6th Frame Work Programme, formed to further the use of the following advanced and future maritime technologies:
- Automatic Identification System
- Long Range Identification & Tracking
- Web Mapping Services
- Satellite based Synthetic Aperture Radar.
One of MarNIS’ primary objectives is to provide a pan European near real time maritime picture to empower services with enhanced decision making tools in the areas of: Security, Safety, Efficiency, Environmental Protection, Search And Rescue and Maritime Assistance Services.
MarNIS is a four year project that started in November 2004 with a budget of 18.2m euros (12m euros EC contribution) and has 44 partners and 12 sub-contractors from 13 countries. As the Project enters into its final quarter, there have been major achievements that will be demonstrated.
Harbourcraft Identification and Monitoring System
Mr Edmund Ooi, ST Electronics (Info-Comm Systems), Singapore
The Harbour Craft Identification & Monitoring System (HMS) was developed to facilitate greater visibility of vessels to port authorities and security agencies. The system consists of a network of transponders with built-in GPS and GPRS antennas mounted on vessels and sending vessels’ information via the local GSM/GPRS network to the monitoring centers.
HMS allows the centers and agencies to identify smaller vessels or craft heading towards them, in addition to their radar, infra red detectors and cameras. Early detection of unknown, non-HMS/AIS-equipped craft will provide more time for these ports and ships to mount preventive measures to evade terrorist attacks, sea-hijacks, piracy or any ill intent posed by these approaching craft.
The HMS system thus gives a better security operation by providing holistic maritime domain awareness in vessel visibility, better control & visual reporting, enhanced maritime safety & security and improved operation efficiency. The system also helps in data management by providing historical & statistical information readily available for auditing purposes, facilitating long-term strategic planning.
The Harbour Craft Identification & Monitoring System (HMS) has incorporated many innovative technologies including
• Electronic Navigation Chart (ENC) Display
• Centralized Information Database
• Surveillance Virtual Fence
• System Logging and Replay Function
• Mobile Monitoring Terminal
• Mobile Transponder
• Panic Button Security Alert
• Remote Over The Air (OTA) Configuration Update
• Protection Mechanism for Mobile Transponder
Modeling and Validation of Maritime Surveillance Performance
Dr Stefano Coraluppi, NATO Undersea Research Center, Italy
NATO is pursuing research activities to exploit existing sensor systems in support of maritime surveillance efforts.
In this domain, multi-sensor data may include automatic identification system (AIS) tracks, contacts from coastal radar, video, infrared imagery, and satellite-based sensors.
The NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) has significant experience in multi-sensor tracking and fusion technology for active sonar-based undersea surveillance.
Recently, we have extended our distributed multi-hypothesis tracking (DMHT) technology so as to generate a real-time consolidated maritime (surface) surveillance picture, and we have applied these algorithms to sea trial data [1-2].
Future upgrades include the development of a fusion-on-demand capability to address the significant gaps and persistence in AIS track information . As a parallel activity, we have initiated work in multi-sensor fusion modelling  to quantify surveillance performance and optimal sensor tasking as a function of available sensor assets.
This paper will introduce an enhanced model for multi-sensor surveillance performance, and provide validation based on simulated sensor data to which we apply automated tracking, data fusion, and anomaly-detection processing.
References:  C. Carthel, S. Coraluppi, and P. Grignan, Multisensor Tracking and Fusion for Maritime; Surveillance, in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Information Fusion, July 2007, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada;  C. Carthel, S. Coraluppi, R. Grasso, and P. Grignan, Fusion of AIS, RADAR and SAR Data for Maritime Surveillance, in Proceedings of the SPIE Europe Remote Sensing Conference, September 2007, Florence, Italy;  S. Coraluppi, C. Carthel, and A. Maguer, Maritime Surveillance Research at NURC, in Proceedings of the NATO RTO SET Panel Symposium on Sensors and Technology for Defence Against Terrorism, April 2008, Mannheim, Germany.
 S. Coraluppi, M. Guerriero, C. Carthel, and P. Grignan, Fusion Performance Analysis for
Maritime Surveillance, in Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Maritime Systems and Technology
Conference (MAST 2007), Genoa, Italy, November 2007.
ISPS Implementation onboard ships and ports
Mr. Amit Bhatnagar, Indian Register of Shipping, Singapore
ISPS Code came up as an initiative of IMO subsequent to the unfortunate 9/11 accident as a proactive measure against possible terrorist activities against maritime community and encompassed both Port Facilities & ships on international trade.
The responsibility for implementation of the ISPS Code lies with the Flag Administration through RSO. IRS gained rich experience even before the Code became mandatory through the stages of implementation with available & innovative technology in the ports as well as on onboard the ships of various flags.
IRS is also imparting related training to international shipping, ports & administrations. This has led to build up of enormous expertise within and is reflected by the track record of inspected ships and improved security environment in ports. The security practices recommended by IRS and accepted by various Port facilities have been appreciated globally included US Coast Guard.
This paper will present insight into the implementation of the Code in these contexts.
Anti-Asymmetric Warfare Concepts in Maritime Domain Awareness
Mr Felix Opitz, EADS, Germany
Maritime domain awareness is addressed in various military and civil areas, such as combat management systems on naval platform or coastal surveillance systems. A new, challenging aspect in all this applications is the issue of new types of threats, so called anti asymmetric warfare.
The operational frame may be, for instance counter-terrorism, peace keeping and peace support operations. Here, the adversary tries to create instability using irregular forces. These may include prohibited weapons, improvised devices, the use of civilian facilities and equipment as weapons, or the use of legitimate weapons in an unlawful way. It is lead by the willingness to use irregular forces and unconventional weapons to advantage.
The answer to each of these scenarios varies, and consists of both operational concepts and technical solutions. The search for operational concepts has already lead to different national and multi-national tactics. A technical solution addresses the issues of information fusion, threat evaluation, weapon assignment and visualisation.
This paper will present some operational concepts and technical solutions within coastal surveillance and naval combat management systems.
Operational & system architecture principles for the Under Water Battlespace
Patrick Sicilia, Thales Group, France
Pierre Alinat, Thales Underwater Systems, France
With the end of cold war and the fall of Berlin’s wall, our security challenges have fundamentally changed and armies are transforming their forces into more capable, reactive and available forces for joint and combined expeditionary operations.
At the same time, information, telecommunication, new mechanical technologies are paving the way for new solutions and new concepts of operations and NEC (Network Enabled Capability) is a basic enabler for these transformations.
The TUS UWB (Under Water Battlespace) Initiative deals with this new context and aims to propose global solutions taking into account operational benefits of NEC approach including new assets such as AUV, USV, RDS, and new or enhanced role of MPA, Helicopter, submarines.
This paper will describe TUS structured approach to elaborate concept of operation and solution architecture for Under Water operations which are nowadays mainly conducted in littoral waters within Task Forces.
After the description of the high level system tenets and challenges, the paper presents some UW NEC operational benefit cases with assessment through simulations, operational and system architecture principles with typical case descriptions in a DoDAF format and finally the global evaluation of these new concepts with TUS CAP (Capability Assessment Platform) connected to the Thales Transformation Integration Centre (TIC) so as to include the global context of joint and combined operations.
As a conclusion, UWB dominance is based on a global system approach which requests to master the overall USW functional chain wherever are equipments or systems and TUS is developing tools, methodology and solutions to help customers and users to take advantage of this NEC approach in order to be more efficient in this new context.
New Concept for Security in the Extreme Littorals
Vice-Admiral Richard Börjesseon, Security Alliance Stockholm AB, Sweden
One of the greatest challenges in Maritime Security is ensuring security in the extreme littorals, i.e. in harbours and along coastlines and riversides.
In this environment, traditional security systems often are not enough: Surveillance of surrounding land areas is insufficient, and force protection measures are not dimensioned to the special conditions. Also, interoperability is frequently nonexistent between the many parties involved in an operation.
A new Swedish concept offers a command and control system for operations in the extreme littorals, allowing advanced interoperability while ensuring the highest standards of information security. Monitoring of land, air and waters provide improved protection of both critical infrastructure and force protection in the area.
A common operational picture is distributed to all parties involved: military, coastguard, customs, port authorities etc. In a crisis situation communication is also established with local authorities, rescue services, police and NGOs.
Implementation of the ISPS Code and European Regulations in Spain - Special Measures for Passenger Ships.
Mr Francisco Javier Castillejo, Ministry of Development, Spain
After the events of 11th of September 2001, there were adopted measures in all fields, with the aim of enhancing the security of personal and material property.
In maritime field, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) began the work required for the adoption of new standards for ships and ports.
Spain must also comply the requirements of the European Regulation No 725/2004, which increases the security measures for ships and port facilities.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss how international requirements in security terms are implemented in Spain. In addition, because of Spain characteristics, the issue of ships security is particularly important in passenger ships, linking the mainland with the islands and the islands between them. As well as the specifics during “Operación Paso del Estrecho”, security measures in this kind of ships, are a priority for the Spanish Administration.
Space-based Automatic Information System (AIS) Solutions to the Simultaneous Access Issue
Mr Thibaud Calmettes, Thales Alenia Space, France
Hérvé Buret/Michel Monnerat/Laurent Diderot/Rémi Challamel, Thales Alenia Space, France
The direct reception by satellites of the VHF Automatic Information System (AIS) of commercial shipping has significant benefits in Open Seas compared to the more restrictive LRIT solution just entering into service.
A key issue of feasibility is the capability to manage all simultaneous emissions in busy ship lanes.
In the current AIS system, the VHF messages collision avoidance mechanism is ensured by a time division technique so that each ship in a 20 Nm diameter circle uses different time slots. As this is about the range of AIS ship-to-ship transmission at sea, no messages overlapping can occur. But a space-based receiver has a much larger visibility circle, and then requires a method to discriminate two or more signals emitted in the same time slot as a necessary requirement before any demodulation or position evaluation – otherwise the AIS information would be lost.
A first solution is to distinguish the signals by spectral analysis, thanks to Doppler difference between two or more far sources. For closer sources, differences between the propagation delays may be used. An other innovative Thales Alenia Space proprietary technique allows to increase performance for even closer sources.
This paper will give technical details on these three separation techniques. It will also provides a performance evaluation, in terms of availability and positioning precision, in accordance with the space constellation and the ship density.
Vessel Traffic Management to Port Security
Dr. Ing. Arne Løvik, Kongsberg, Norway
The ever growing marine transport and efficiency required in operation of harbors and sea lines, poses great technological and systematic challenges to the support systems for the maritime operations.
This gave rise to Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) and Port Management systems. The new changes to the Port security addresses not only the normal or friendly traffic, but also systems to secure the normal port operation and deter and stop any hostile operation against the harbour.
The mere cost of an incident halting normal operation of a major Port will incur significant economical and operational consequences to a country or region.
Kongsberg has, with the knowledge and experience from more than 180 systems delivered world wide, designed and implemented a modular, integrated system incorporating the standard VTS and Port Management functions together with the new demands for port security and surveillance.
Coalition Portal for Situational Awareness (C-PORTS)
Mr. Paul Mitten, Compusult Limited, Canada
This presentation describes the implementation and application of C-PORTS, a geospatial portal (geoportal) Compusult has deployed for coalition-based situational awareness and interoperability, based on our Web Enterprise Suite (WES) commercial software. WES is a spatial data inventory system, providing highly interoperable and tightly integrated components for discovery, access, visualization, and sharing of any type of location-based data and services. WES interoperability is based on its compliance with all relevant Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC, ISO, U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and FGDC standards and specifications. WES now incorporates a new, advanced Web-based map client, a new technology-based inventory system designed to meet the latest DoD requirements, and compliance with the latest OGC specifications. This includes access to sensors and sensor observations in accordance with OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative standards and specifications via the WES Sensor Management (WSM) component.
We will demonstrate how C-PORTS, through WES technology, fully employs a service-oriented architecture (SOA) and data fusion capabilities for improved leader-centric, net-enabled operations. In addition, the WES Sensor Management (WSM) component supports OGC SWE standards, as well as mass market tools, for access to sensor observations, tasking of sensors, and dissemination of sensor alerts within its standards-based geoportal environment. WES and C-PORTS are currently being used to perform similar tasks for the U.S. DoD and coalition partners. WES has also been used in multinational/multi-agency task force environments for previous CWID, Empire Challenge, and JWID programs.
Radar and AIS Sensors Constellation for Global Maritime Surveillance
Mr. Jacques Richard, Thales Alenia Space, France
Maritime surveillance is of utmost importance to ensure the safe use of the seas and maritime border security. These missions are currently covered by ground and airborne sensors, but better time and spatial coverage can be done only with space sensors which can bring a global coverage and permanent revisit time.
The space based system presented here consists in a constellation of four satellites, in which an AIS (Automatic Identification System) receiver instrument and a Radar instrument are embarked together. This innovative concept covers either cooperative vessels, thanks to its sensor allowing AIS messages exploitation and non cooperative vessels thanks to Radar sensor. These synchronous and geographically overlapping data can be processed further on the ground and can allow data fusion for cross-validation and for high level interpretation.
In the frame of SMAR study (Feasibility study of a space-based maritime surveillance system), funded by CNES, several concepts for this dual sensor constellation have been addressed. One of them supported by Thales Alenia Space is described in this paper. AIS sensor is based on a multi-antenna system, which enables efficient signal discrimination, and on high level processing algorithms, split between board and ground. The Radar concept, based on low PRF Radar, is specifically oriented for ship detection and exhibits high detection performances of small ships even in adverse sea states conditions. Performance of the AIS and Radar sensors constellation will be quantified (revisit time, swath width, detection probability, false alarm probability, number of detected vessels).
Port Facilities Protection Using Cost-Effective Countermeasures Identification
Dott. Francesca Matarese, SESM, Italy
After 9/11 terrorist attacks, critical infrastructure protection has become a priority all over the world. The focus moved from “safety”, so from the prevention and mitigation of casual and unexpected events, to “security”, so mitigation of deliberate acts.
Regarding the protection of particular critical infrastructures as ports and airports, respectively IMO and ICAO developed two different methodologies for security management, both taking into account that “total security” would be attainable only with an infinite cost.
IMO, through ISPS Code, stated that countermeasures have to be identified and implemented in a scalable way, according to the “security level” of the port. Nevertheless, “security level” is the result of intelligence information, whose trustworthiness is in inverse relation to malicious people’s capability to act by surprise, which undoubtedly increases the success of their actions.
Therefore, security risk assessment and consequent countermeasures should set aside intelligence information and base their cost-effectiveness on other considerations. The aim of this paper is right this one, to propose an innovative methodology for security risk management that allows the identification of cost-effective countermeasures, based on the evaluation of the impact of each potential incident on the port, independently from the “security level”. To meet this objective we will benefit of past experiences in airport security, where different strategies are suggested by ICAO.
Asymmetrical Propeller Behaviour of Twin Screw Ships During Maneuvers
Dr Salvatore Mauro, CNR-INSEAN Italian National Ship Model Basin, Italy
Twin screw ships may experience considerably asymmetrical propeller loads during manoeuvres.
This phenomenon may result in large power fluctuations during tight maneuvers, with increases of shaft torque up to and over 100% of the steady values in straight course with considerable unbalances. A research activity has been set up in order to deeply investigate the phenomenon, potentially dangerous for ships propulsion systems with coupled shaft lines by means of large scale model testing.
In the present work, the extended experimental campaign results on a free running model of a twin-screw ship are presented, allowing to obtain a deeper insight of the problem. In particular, tests have been carried out simulating different simplified control schemes, starting from the most common constant rate of revolution tests and including different control strategies (constant torque and power). Usual standard maneuvers (turning circle, zigzag and spiral) have been carried out, providing results for asymmetrical shaft behaviour and the more general ship manoeuvrability behaviour. The experimental results gained allow to provide information and guidelines about the most suitable model testing procedure for the analysis of this complex phenomenon.
An Approach To A Combined Sensor System For Detection And Classification Of Small Surface Vessels
Mr Rolf Ragnarsson, FOI (Swedish Defense Research Agency), Sweden
The interest in novel solutions for improved Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) has increased in recent years. Continuous detection, positioning, tracking, and possibly identification of small surface targets, like small boats at sea and in littoral waters, are becoming important capabilities for countering illegal immigration, piracy, drug trafficking and asymmetric threats.
The paper describes work done by FOI to develop cost-effective methods for the detection and classification of small surface vessels at sea or in littoral waters. We report on the architecture, current realization, and initial tests of a prototype system consisting of a coherent pulse-Doppler radar operating at S-band and an optical sensor module consisting of a gated active laser imaging sensor for classification of candidate targets. The two sensor modules have complementary capabilities and can be used to realize an integrated system with both good area coverage and high angular resolution. Improved clutter-reduction methods using coherent 2D-filtering are also discussed.
Advanced Waste Management for Navy Vessels
Commander (ret) Klaus D. Eule, Deerberg-Systems, Germany
Frigates, Corvettes, OPVs and Landing Ships have mostly received recycling equipment for volume reduction of the waste.
Deerberg-Systems has fitted 74 Navy vessels of various classes with waste management systems or equipment.
Aircraft Carriers and Joint Support Ships have been fitted with complete waste management systems including incinerators, food waste systems and recycling equipment.
The latest addition to waste management equipment for Navy vessels is the Deerberg Incinerator Alternative (DIA) which is based on the OMPeco Converter®. The DIA is able to treat dry, wet and special (e.g. medical) waste in sorted or unsorted combination. The residue is a sterile fluff that can be compacted and stored at ambient temperature.
As the Converter® will not need additional air for the waste treatment and does not produce an exhaust; this system could be installed on Submarines. Furthermore Deerberg has advanced the development of the DEVATEC® Food Waste System to combine the advantages of pulper and vacuum technologies.
Bio-sludge from the Advanced Waste Water Treatment System (AWT) can be de-watered and dried by the AWT Interface that includes a decanter and a dryer. The dried pulp will be mixed with other waste to be treated in the Converter®.
The modularity of the Deerberg waste management systems and compactness of the equipment lends itself to retrofitting ships in service that do not have sufficient waste management equipment on board.
Overall the approach to integrated waste management on board will increase the operational availability of the ships at sea.
Naval Sensors And Target Systems - Challenges solved by Cassidian's Sensor Suite
Mr. Gunter Menacher, EADS Deutschland GmbH, Germany
For some Navies new types of operations not only in blue water. A variety of different naval sensors will be available at Cassidian for the detection of not only asymmetric threats to support operation in littoral water and typical blue water surveillance activities. For test and training it is evident to use easy handling target systems.
This paper will examine, from a Cassidian perspective, how a number of these challenges can be addressed. It will examine the Cassidian naval radars like TRS-4D, TRSS and and elektro/optical sensors as members of the Cassidian sensor suites (shipborne/airborne). The typical chararacteristics and performances will be highlighted and how it is applicable for typical naval missions on different naval vessel types.
In a second part the Cassidian naval target systems will be presented to demonstrate an easy way for efficient testing of missile firings.
Securing Offshore Infrastructures Through Global Alert and Graded Response System (SARGOS)
Dr Marie-Annick Giraud, SOFRESUD, France
The purpose of the SARGOS project is to develop a global alert and graded response system to answer the recent but strong need for securing critical civilian offshore infrastructures, vulnerable to piracy or terrorist actions from the sea.
The challenge of protecting these infrastructures against malevolent intrusions requires to develop innovative strategies so as to ensure in a coordinate way the whole processing line: automatic surveillance, robust detection, continuous adjustment of the reaction plan and graded implementation of the relevant set of reactions.
The system handles:
Automatic and robust detection and classification of small size maritime targets in rough sea;
Detection of suspicious behaviors in a security zone around the platform;
Formalization and modeling of graded internal and external reactions, adapted to the dangerousness of the detected intrusion and taking into account security rules in force on the platform, geopolitical environment and legal aspects;
Activation of progressive and reversible reactions, according to an intelligent situation analysis process. Reactions can go from a simple alert up to bringing non lethal reaction means into play.
The project will materialize with the implementation of all the processing line in a single platform that will be used to carry out experimentations and to validate the overcoming of critical issues and the appropriateness of the proposed concept with regards to users’ needs.
SARGOS has been selected by the French National Research Agency (ANR) in the frame of their 2009 global safety program (CSOSG).
Innovative Solution for Low Cost Tactical Combat Systems (POLARIS)
Ing Thierry Medina, DCNS, France
A.Chesny, DCNS, France
The POLARIS system with scalable functionalities addresses operational needs for a wide range of operational missions, at least: international peacekeeping (i.e.; piracy), maritime surveillance (i.e.; traffic monitoring and detection of suspicious vessel behaviours) and combat in coastal situation, etc.
In a compact and affordable package, POLARIS provides a core set of functions that can be easily adapted to existing equipment and completed with add on functions to meet most of specific mission needs.
According to this approach and an open architecture, the POLARIS capability is responding to:
Reuse of existing on board equipment (i.e., set of sensors and effectors) with latest proven technology and high performance Naval Combat System;
Upgrade the implemented POLARIS version with new functions available as options;
Perform Naval Combat System modernisation in an more easy way and compatible within stringent time schedule.
POLARIS represents a new generation of Naval Combat Capabilities to responds to worldwide navy new challenges and threats.
How to Combine AIS, Argos and LRIT Systems to Contribute Efficiently to the Maritime Domain Awareness
Mr Thibaud Calmettes, Thales Alenia Space, France
Rémi Challamel, Thales Alenia Space, France; Gaëtan Fabritius, CLS, France; Julia Le Maitre, CNES, France
Space offers relevant tools for ship tracking and related maritime security applications.
This paper will focus on three systems and their possible synergies : Argos, LRIT and AIS.
Argos is a 30 years old system, designed for environment monitoring applications. It is a powerful efficient reporting solution well adapted to track fishing vessels for sustainable management of marine resources.
LRIT (Long Range Identification and Tracking) is a worldwide secure governmental system, in force since 2009, to track commercial and passenger ships for security and safety purposes. Protocols and messages are internationally standardized and rely on existing constellations (Inmarsat and Iridium).
AIS (Automatic Identification System) is one of the first open standard data radio communication systems adopted within the global maritime environment. Studies and experiments are in progress for the reception of AIS signals from space by Low-Earth orbit constellation, with an objective of efficient coverage around 2014. Depending on the required performances, integrity and reliability, different levels of payload and satellite solutions have been defined. Space-based AIS is transparent for ships, but faces detection difficulties today over high density maritime areas.
This paper will provide technical details and operational use cases for these space systems, and present campaign results (Argos, LRIT) and or simulation results (for different levels of complexity in space based AIS system) to highlight the benefits and limitations of each system.
It will finally demonstrate through concrete examples how an innovative complementary management of these three space based solutions would significantly benefit the worldwide maritime domain awareness.
Affordable Net-Enabling of Legacy Systems
Mr. James Thomas, Naval Surface Warfare Center (Dahlgren Division), United States
Joint, combined and multi-national forces require high levels of interoperability and integration to enable them to share situational awareness, work seamlessly together, and maximize their warfighting effectiveness. The foundation for implementing this net-centric vision is a set of Internet/Web-based technical standards that apply to Service-Oriented Architectures, software services (e.g, Web Service Description Language (WSDL)) and data (e.g., eXtensible Markup Language (XML)).
A major hurdle to realizing this net-centric vision is the cost, schedule and risks associated with legacy system modernization to comply with net-centric technical standards. To further complicate this challenge, tactical combat and weapon systems often require assured real-time performance, weapon safety-conscious design, and secure operations. Current web-based technologies are unable to meet these requirements. This creates a dilemma for these critical systems, and it hampers advances in interoperability and integration with other systems.
To address these challenges, the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) Dahlgren has developed a software technology, the Net-Centric Adapter for Legacy Systems (NCALS). NCALS is a highly configurable technology that enables the integration of data, software applications, systems, and Systems of Systems. In addition, the NCALS technology supports application of the “separation of concerns” principle to combat and weapon system architectures. This allows mission critical systems to participate in a net-centric force without jeopardizing their real-time performance, weapon safety and security requirements.
This paper will discuss the NCALS technology and its potential applications.
Global Approach to Sea Border Surveillance (MATRICS)
Mr Stéphane Claisse, DCNS, France
A global sea border maritime surveillance system aims to maintain situational awareness of activities (legitimate and unlawful) developing in the high sea, coastal waters and ports and permit to perform decided trans-border common missions of interest.
In 2007, DCNS established a roadmap for a global system targeting to permanently track and monitor all type of ship traffics and vulnerable trading lanes and zones in order to detect abnormal or illicit vessel behaviour to understand and early identify threatening situations.
This future generation of maritime surveillance system, called MATRICS will allow:
• Permanent and all weather coverage of border maritime areas.
• Continuous collection and fusion of heterogeneous data provided by various types of shore and deployed sensors and other information from external sources.
• Supervised automatic detection of abnormal vessel behaviours (in track and activity) and generate alarms.
• Understanding of suspicious events and early identification of threats from series of detected spatiotemporal abnormal vessel behaviours (alarms).
The global approach has led DCNS, supported by key partners, to successfully launch various initiatives in 2008 and 2009 – both in France and in Europe – dedicated to demonstrate the feasibility of all critical aspects of such an ambitious system
Status and (at sea) results of the current initiatives demonstrating automatic detection of abnormal behaviour (SCANMARIS, TAMARIS), new sensors, global data fusion and recognized maritime situation awareness (SISMARIS, I2C), as well the capability of a fully passive sensor suite (PROPAGATION) will be presented.
Innovative Spaceborne SAR System for Mediterranean Sea Daily Mapping and Surveillance
Mr. Ignazio Rana, Thales Alenia Space, Italy
Some of the main needs in the frame of maritime surveillance for countries facing the Mediterranean basin concern the capability to assure maritime disaster early warning (e.g. early detection of environmental accidents or quick ship adrift location) and to detect non collaborative ships (i.e. with Transponder switched off) engaged in smuggling or polluting malicious activities.
Ground based systems are limited in facing these challenges, so an integration of the capabilities offered by such systems with those offered by a space based one may improve the response to illegal maritime behaviour, limit the human life loss risk, and restraint the environmental consequences of oil spill disasters through an improved early warning capability.
This paper's description of design and achievable performances will introduce a SAR satellite system, optimized for the ship detection, capable to operate in two different system modes: respectively named Mapping and Urgent mode.
The Mapping mode allows performing systematically and autonomously the mosaiking of the Mediterranean Sea (in a time span of about a day) through medium resolution acquisition.
This innovative capability, expandable to other areas, is assured through the combination of two concepts, i.e. an orbital architecture based on the exploitation of SAR satellites placed on inclined orbital planes guarantying an efficient coverage of the Mediterranean basin and SAR sensors capable to ensure a wide and adequate access area.
In emergencies, the system can – on demand – switch to Urgent Mode, performing high resolution acquisition and delivering the product (a single acquisition) to the customer in few hours.
Anti-piracy Maritime Surveillance
Mr. Olivier Yvon, EADS Defence & Security, France
Coastal surveillance systems are so far based on coastal radars, AIS, cameras and other on-shore sensors.
Their coverage is limited to 30 to 40 NM. Surveillance of the high seas is performed by maritime patrol aircrafts and patrol boats. The maritime situation established by those aircrafts and patrol boats can be integrated into the Recognized Maritime Picture of the coastal surveillance systems, enabling coverage extension.
This is what is contracted and under deployment in France. The same principle can be applied to the Gulf of Aden. The Gulf of Aden is not so big (500 NMx150 NM) ans is cruised dayly by many military and merchant ships, all equipped with radars. If all those military and merchant ships were equipped with a simple Tactical Picture system integrating their on-board radar and AIS, and exchanged this Tactical Picture with an on-shore Maritime Security centre in the region, a complete Gulf of Aden Picture could be established, in real-time and almost exhaustive in coverage.
High Energy Laser for Naval Application
Dr. Markus Jung, Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbH, Germany
Based on the requirements of the actual scenarios for laser weapon applications CRAMM (Counter Rocket Artillery Mortar Missile), Air Defence and UXO clearing, the basic requirements of a future laser weapon such like beam diameter, beam quality, tracking capability, etc. were deduced.
To fulfil the requirements Rheinmetall Combat Systems (RCS) is using the technical approach of the Beam Super Imposing technology BSI. The BSI technology had been intensively investigated and tested by RCS at the laser test ranges in the EZU Unterlüß and EZO Ochsenboden. Basic experiments regarding the tracking capability and compensation of the atmosphere will be explained.
The two stage approach to realise the generic 50 kW Laser Weapon Demonstrator (LWD) using the BSI technology will be presented. It shows the first stage were 3 respectively 2 Laser Weapon Modules (LWM) each consisting of a 10 kW laser with excellent beam quality and a Beam Forming Unit (BFU) superimposed on the target building the 30 kW respectively the 20 kW Laser Weapon Station (LWS) and the second stage consisting of the 30 kW LWS and the 20 kW LWS superimposed on the target generating so the 50 kW LWD.
The realisation using an existing ground based air defence system from Rheinmetall Air Defence (RAD) consisting of Skyguard as radar tracker and two revolver gun air defense turrets as the weapon platforms for the LWS will be explained.
From these results the future steps of RCS realising high energy laser for naval application are predetermined. The requirements of the Laser Weapon on power supply and cooling on board of a naval platform are determined by the different scenarios.
The three different approaches as: Laser Weapon Integration, Laser Weapon Container and Laser Weapon Adaption of RCS to realise a Laser Weapon on naval platforms will be explained.
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Requires a Total Solution Approach
Dr Phil Ballou, Jeppesen, a Boeing Company, United States
Ship and fleet operating efficiencies are multi-faceted and interdependent. As such, efficiency management must be an integrated solution that extends across the entire operation of the fleet, including tactical readiness, port efficiency, and ship life cycle costs.
No single metric can be used to indicate success or failure of improving overall efficiency. Rather, a comparative analysis of multiple metrics is required. Furthermore, to be viable, efficiency management must accommodate operating objectives, priorities, and constraints.
Technology to save fuel and reduce carbon footprint is only useful if critical mission constraints also are met. Most ships can reduce fuel consumption simply by slowing down, albeit at the expense of passage duration and estimated time of arrival (ETA). Tactical objectives that require fast transit times or reliable just-in-time arrival may justify an associated increase in fuel consumption. Ship operators fulfilling those objectives must look for other ways than slow steaming to improve energy efficiency, including, for example, deployment optimization, smart voyage planning, and onboard energy management.
Other key metrics associated with operating efficiency include safety and comfort of crew and cargo, ship life cycle costs, and unscheduled time in port. By strategic application of multiple efficiency management tools, these may be maintained or improved while supporting the operational objectives and constraints of ship, fleet, and operator. All of these aspects of ship and fleet operating efficiency may be quantitatively compared to previous baselines using objective benchmarking methodologies.
Netforce and Blue-Water Cyberboats: A New Blue-water Naval Force In Creation.
Mr Sandy Allsopp, Allsopp helikites Ltd, United Kingdom
A synergistic combination of compressed internet-protocol video, 21 hop, low-latency, digital MANET radios, carried on compact, high-altitude, all-weather, Helikite aerostats, creates an extensive MANET infrastructure called Netforce. Netforce provides persistent video-relay over millions of square miles of ocean. Cyberboats are tele-operated, unmanned boats that can roam anywhere within Netforce.
Netforce links into cyberspace, enabling Cyberboats to be controlled from anywhere via the world-wide-web, or a secure private intranet.
Netforce Helikites can be up to 100 miles apart, giving a radius range of 2,100 nautical miles from each internet portal, so Netforce can span the world’s oceans.
Cyberboats can be of many different types and sizes including: fast attack; ASW; submarine, etc. The elimination of onboard crew allows tiny Cyberboats to have immense endurance and range. The permanent video link provided by Netforce allows the off-board crew to control the boat. The normal sense-and-avoid problems associated with autonomous unmanned boats are eliminated within Netforce. Cyberboats operating within Netforce do not need complicated onboard satellite communications equipment, so Cyberboats can be inexpensive. Thousands of Cyberboats can be launched and steamed millions of miles, over many years, for the cost of building one frigate.
Cyberboats and Netforce can be set-up and launched from small islands, mother-ships, or dropped from transport aircraft flying over the ocean. This enables a powerful blue-water naval force to be deployed on any part of the world’s oceans within hours. Cyberboats and Netforce can dominate the seas.