Simulation Weapons Systems
Tuesday 5th September, 1600hrs–1730hrs
Fast calculation of time launch windows burnout positions, and velocities of an interceptor versus a threat
Mr. William Ormsby, Naval Surface Warfare Center (Dahlgren Division), United States
Armido R. DiDonato/ Gary L. Sitzman/ William F. Ormsby, Naval Surface Warfare Center, USA
Battle Space defines the ensemble of all possible engagement scenarios of an Interceptor against a ballistic Threat.
Ground Missile Defense (GMD) and Tactical Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD) are each threat cued by satellite or radar tracking. This identification process places severe time limitations upon the task of defining Battle Space i.e. determining a time of launch window (TLW) and burnout conditions for the Interceptor. Today, Firing Table methods are used for this purpose.
The Firing Table is made up of a rectangular – or parallelepiped – grid that has been superimposed on to a pre-computed set of candidate interceptor flyout trajectories from burnout/ “flyout fan”. When, at a point in time, the predicted Threat trajectory is within the Firing Table grid, a point in TLW is established. A ballistic intercept trajectory is then computed via various interpolation methods, and one reverse trajectory integration to determine required burnout conditions. Firing table methods, however, are open to numerical instabilities and serious two and/or three-dimensional interpolation errors.
This paper will describe two methods, FAST12 and FTLW (Fast Time Launch Window) that are free of such problems. They are designed to use a flyout fan but not a firing table to obtain TLW's and required burnout conditions, and allow for establishing Battle Space in GMD and TBMD missions by predicting the earliest and latest intercept times by flying multiple intercept trajectories, with High Order Gravity effects (J2-J6), HOG. At present, three intercept trajectories are used to reach the Threat: maximizing time of flight (TMAX), minimizing required energy (TOPT), and minimizing the time of flight (TMIN). Hence, additional choices for intercept angle geometry and relative threat/interceptor velocity also become available.
FAST12 and FTLW, rapidly determine the time of launch windows (TLW) for an Interceptor to strike a ballistically coasting Threat missile. For each specified time in TLW, an interceptor burnout position (\BP) and associated velocity (\BV) required to hit the threat missile are determined. The Interceptor, as well as the Threat missile, coasts ballistically in a rotating earth frame under the influence of HOG. The flyout fan used in a topocentric coordinate frame is made up of 12 azimuthal planes originating from the Interceptor launch point uniformly spanning 360 degrees with each of these planes containing 33 flyout trajectories. Both procedures require solving the Lambert problem modified for HOG by using target position offsets in FAST12 and variational linear corrections in FTLW.
Results of the analyses are two computer programs: FAST12.FOR, based on FAST12 and written in Fortran 77, and FTLW.F, based on FTLW and written in Fortran 90. These programs are subject only to the speed and word length limitations of the computer to be used. In a typical Interceptor-Threat situation, using an up-to-date IBM PC with double precision arithmetic, three TLW's can be determined together with the associated (\BP)'s and (\BV)'s at 5 second intervals throughout the TLW's in less than a second. Thus, these programs can be used for real time operational scenarios.
Italian Navy and RINA Classification Society: the Results of Five Years of Common Activities in Naval Support
Captain Claudio Boccalatte, Italian Navy, Italy
Fulvio Vaccarezza , RINA SPA, Italy
The well established collaboration between Italian Navy and RINA has experienced a valuable increase since 2002 – when many activities started – with the aim of consolidating, under the scope of RINA institutional activities, procedures meeting the peculiarities of a Naval organization and the special exigencies of Naval ships.
This paper will describe past, present, and future activities, starting from the development of special Rules – RINAMIL, up to the experimental maintenance of class for an existing ship.
The paper will also describes the classification of all new buildings, aircraft carrier Cavour and Horizon and FREMM class frigates, the revision of existing naval standards and the development of guidance for designers, the training of officers in merchant related topics, such as environmental protection, the surveys jointly performed on existing ships to advise about maintenance works, and the big effort of the Italian Navy to achieve the voluntary certification of all the fleet for compliance with the International MARPOL Convention.
The Human Element in Ship Design, Build and Operation
Commodore David Squire, The Nautical Institute, United Kingdom
The human element is a critical feature of all aspects of ship or system design and operation, both military and commercial.
Those who are involved in the design, build and updating of ships and their systems and in their operation need to be aware of the problems associated with onboard operations not only in terms of workplace design but also in respect to crew habitability and the education and training needs of the seafarer.
There are many stakeholders involved in the design of ships and their systems. Teamwork and communication at all levels, from concept to build, are essential to the success of any project.
This paper, presented by Commodore Squire, will describe the work done by the Nautical Institute/Lloyd’s Register Educational Trust 'Alert!' project to improve the awareness of the human element in the maritime industry.
Budgetary Impact of Predictive Maintainence and fleet Management Capabilities
Mr John Miele, Micad Marine, United States
This white paper will illustrate the financial impact of the predictive maintenance and fleet management capabilities of the MICAD Marine system on Military vessel operations.
Given the complexity of the problem and the nature of the solution, this paper is divided into the following sections:
1. Description of the MICAD Marine System benefits to the Military.
2. MICAD Marine company background information.
3. Overview of the problem.
4. MICAD Marine’s solution overview.
5. Project activities, costs, and timeline for implementation.
6. Project results.
Ship’s digital control subsystem for AK630 and AK176 guns
Leszek Olejniczak, R&D Marine Technology Centre (CTM), Poland
Edward Glinianowicz, R&D Marine Technology Centre, Poland
The latest armament requirements are strongly focused on achieving high accuracy performance and net readiness. To provide appropriate solutions, certain scientific and technical tasks remain to be solved.
Today's command & control, combat and steering systems are based on Network Centric Concept and widely utilise digital technology. The real challenge comes when existing armaments have to respond the aforementioned requirements.
This paper will give an example of such a challenge, describing the ship's digital control system for AK630 and AK176 guns (developed and manufactured at CTM). The presented solution is the fully digital ship's gun system in the area of the former USSR deliveries. Increased precision, operational reliability, simplified diagnostic procedures, substantially higher effectiveness and possibility to network with any CMS is achieved. All the features make them opened to further upgrades like attachment of subsequent guns including AK725, AK726 or widely used by NATO countries OTO-Melara 76SR gun.
Simulation of engagement coordination between two ships in a missile defence scenario
Dr. Christian Audoly, DCNS, France
Xavier Vainguer/ Alexandre Garnier, DCN Ingénierie, France
Naval military operations increasingly involve information sharing and tasks coordination between different ships present in an operational area.
Combat Management Systems already provide tactical situation information to each operator, thanks to the tactical data links. The increase in weapon systems performance and communications means, make their coordination essential, offering the tactician a wider panel of engagement options.
A typical example is the defence of a naval force attacked missile threat, and the question that arise:
1. How to coordinate the different units?;
2. How to select the units to protect in priority?;
3. Does the usefulness of that concept only appear in high intensity engagements?;
4. What performance is expected of the data links ?
In order to answer these questions and optimise the conception of engagement coordination, naval warfare simulations are used. In order to realise the present study, DCN Ingénierie has developed models able to simulate the command and control orders exchanges between units, allowing representation of the engagement coordination between operators, as is currently practiced.
Firstly, the model of operator and the type of messages exchanged are presented. Then, the methodology is applied to the case of two AAW frigates facing two successive salvos of two seaskimmer missiles (the main defence being PAAMS-type anti-missile systems). The efficiency is quantified by the PEH (probability to escape a hit). Different results have been obtained, such as the influence of the response delay of the operators on the self-defence efficiency. The scenarios are also presented through a 3D visualisation. The types of simulations can also be applied to more complex scenarios, and to engagement coordination in littoral areas.
Submarine Capability Life-Extension (SCLE)
Rear-Admiral (Ret'd) M. Savas Onur, STM, Turkey
Cdr (ret'd) Hakan Dogan Savci/Ali Vasfi Demorta/Cdr(ret) Muzaffer Kaya/Cdr (ret'd) Ozkan Cokol/Mr. Ali Vasfi Demirtas, Engineering & Consultancy Services Naval Programs, Undersecretariat for Defence, Turkey
Non-nuclear submarines are internationally recognized as a maritime core capability able to perform a variety of roles that support national security and defence objectives.
In this regard, they act as an unparalleled affordable ‘force multiplier’ for the operating nation in two dimensions, on and beneath the sea.
The aim of a midlife upgrade is to operate the submarines at least 15 years more by installing modern weapon and electronic sensors and overhauling of the hull/machinery systems.The hull accounts for about one third the cost of a non-nuclear submarine, whilst weapons, sensors and navigational aids account for another 44 percent or so, leaving machinery and auxiliaries the balance 23 percent.
A non-nuclear submarine would achieve full operational capability if the 44 percent were to be replaced every 15 to 20 years for a midlife update. To make this worthwhile the remaining 58 percent would have to be of quality to ensure the backup endurance.
This paper will discuss the different approaches that are being adapted in order to satisfy the key drivers of SCLE due to changes in operational tasks, obsolescence and high exploitation cost of essential systems whilst focusing on issues of affordability and availability. The paper also reviews the strategies and trends followed over the past decade as well as future scenarios.
Risk Reduction Methodology for the Manning of the Operations Room of a Frigate (With Reduced Crew)
M. Ludovic Martinet, Ministry of Defence (DGA), France
Captain T. Gelle, French Navy, France; L. Bina, Ministry of Defence/DGA/CTSN, France; C. Bourseul, DCNS, France
This paper will present the three phases of the process conducted to allow the French Navy to operate its future Frigates FREMM with a highly reduced crew (focusing on the operations room).
During the feasibility phase, the Navy staff and the DGA conducted a detailed Technical & Operational Analysis, which demonstrated that it could be possible to reduce the crew to less than 50% of the "in service" ships provided that collective and individual work organisations were adapted and that coherent automatisms were installed.
For the risk reduction phase, the Navy staff and the DGA conceived a full scale dynamic mock-up tool of an operations room, the IBEO. This tool runs realistic operational scenarios and allows quantifying the work load of operators.
Five experiment campaigns have already been organised using the IBEO by the Navy, the FREMM Industry and the DGA. Each of these campaigns tested hypothesis of work organisation by warfare domains.
Finally, in the FREMM design phase, the results of the campaigns have been taken into account for MMI specifications. Once developed, MMI will be validated on IBEO.
The paper will show in detail the IBEO, the experiments, the results and conclusions.
Managing the Human Element – Best Practice for Ship Operators
Dr Jonathan Earthy, Lloyd's Register, United Kingdom
In order to address the full range of risks that they, face ship operators (naval as much as merchant), must take a systems view of the ship and include the Human Element.
Lloyd's Register's "Human Element Best Practice for Ship Operators" is a framework that enables thorough, comprehensive and systematic consideration of the influence of the human element on safe and effective ship operations. The paper will present this view of best practice for ship operators and examine the special issues for navies and fleet auxiliaries.
An Innovative Sonar for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (SOLSTICE)
Mr. Robert Balloch, Sonardyne International Ltd, United Kingdom
SOLSTICE represents a new generation of compact, low-power, AUV-based side-scan sonar system with integrated bathymetry. It is the first fully developed member of a family of sensors designed from scratch to dramatically enhance the operational 'search and classify' envelope of today’s small-to-medium sized AUV’s. It achieves this with image quality which should surpass any currently available non-SAS sensor and rival the actual image quality delivered by commercially available SAS in shallow water but with far greater robustness and far less demanding navigational aiding. This paper will describe the key features of SOLSTICE including its proprietary Multipath Suppression Array Technology (MSAT) for optimizing shallow water performance. The capabilities of the FPGA-based on-board signal processing will be described with particular reference to the innovative Pixel Perfect Imaging (P2I) and Real-time auto-calibration (RTAC) sub-systems. The paper will also describe in detail the rigorous tank-based testing phase and finish by showing real imagery collected during the at-sea trial phase of final development.”
Unmanned Sea Platforms For Mine And Underwater Asymmetric Threat Countermeasure
Mr Pawel Polanski, CTM (R&D Marine Technology Centre), Poland
During the last decade MCM operations and operations against underwater asymmetric threats in shallow and very shallow water zones have significantly increased. High risk of carrying out of a mission by MH ship in those areas and availability of new technologies caused accelerated development of unmanned surface and underwater platforms.
Integrated unmanned platforms perform missions according to set operational scenarios such as: assisting MCM operations carried out by dedicated MH ship; MCM operations from non dedicated ships; protection of critical infrastructure such as ports and sea areas; protection of merchant ships and platforms. To carry out those missions, mission modules containing specialized vehicles are developed. Surface vehicles include: reconnaissance vehicle and platform for minelike objects’ identification and neutralization. Underwater platforms include: reconnaissance; MCM; supportive vehicle with manipulation functions; auxiliary platform for establishing communication and navigation network; oceanography platform; bottom support station.
Vehicles with additional systems are built or designed for specific ships called dedicated platforms, but also for vessels of opportunity, non dedicated platforms, as portable systems, e.g. transported in containers, thus extending their usefulness.
Research and development of unmanned systems in Poland resulted in designing and deploying ROV ‘Ukwial’ with ‘Toczek’ charges for mine countermeasure operations and in one shot mine disposal system ‘Gluptak’. Both successfully deployed and in service. Further works are carried out inside EDA’s projects: Buried Mines – platforms for mine detection; Modular Lightweight Minesweeping – unmanned influence sweeping system embracing USV and mentioned influence (acoustic, magnetic, electromagnetic and pressure sources) sweep. Another programme is development of unmanned platforms assisting new class of mine hunter ships, currently under development and to adapt system for non dedicated ships.
Summary of actual state of unmanned systems and prospects for the future are presented in the article.
Interference Striation Pattern of Underwater Target Radiated Noise in Shallow Water Waveguide: Theoretical Analysis and Experiment Results
Professor Qihu Li, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Ming Li; Xiaoping Huang, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Waveguide invariant in shallow water has been an important topic over the past three decades.
The interference phenomena of direct wave of radiated noise of underwater target and reflection wave from sea surface and sea bottom can be considered as a typical case of shallow water waveguide. The interference striation pattern of direct wave and its reflection is the effective and comprehensive figure for better understanding the essence of shallow water waveguide invariant.
The theoretical analysis of interference phenomena generated by direct wave of radiated noise of underwater target and its reflection wave from sea surface and sea bottom is presented in this paper. It is shown that the interference wave resulted by sea surface reflection will produce striation pattern centered at high frequency band. But the interference of nulling frequency resulted by sea bottom reflection may be at low frequency or high frequency, it strongly depends on the acoustic behavior of sea bottom. The relationship between main parameters of interference striation pattern and target, receiver, and environment is derived. It is shown that the interference striation have the shape of hyperbolic curve. The equation set of the hyperbolic curve and its asymptotic line is presented. The at sea experiment carried out in South China sea shows some interesting results. A part of data processing results are illustrated in this paper.
The results expressed in this paper show that the interference striation pattern can be used, in some conditions, as a potential means for target recognition.
Maneuvering Propulsor: Application to Undersea Vehicles
Dr. Stephen Huyer, Naval Undersea Warfare Center (Division Newport), United States
Computational and experimental studies have demonstrated a method to generate vehicle maneuvering forces from a propulsor alone. This concept has significant relevance toward increased maneuverability for both unmanned undersea vehicles and torpedoes.
Both ducted and open, pre-swirl propulsors were configured with an upstream stator row and downstream rotor. During normal operation, the upstream stator blades are all situated at the same pitch angle and pre-swirl the flow into the propulsor when generating a roll moment to counter the torque produced by the rotor.
By varying the pitch angles of the stator blade about the circumference, it is possible to both generate a mean stator side force and subsequently vary the inflow axial velocity and swirl that is ingested into the rotor. The rotor then generates side force in response to the inflow. Computational concept studies and recent experiments for a simplified propulsor unit demonstrated side force coefficients on the order of 0.1 for the ducted configuration and 0.3 for an open propulsor. In the case of the latter, this translates to 50% larger forces than can be generated by conventional control surfaces on 21” Unmanned Undersea Vehicles.
This paper will present a summary of results from the computations and validation experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of this method. Next, an open and ducted propulsor utilizing this technology was designed specifically for the NUWC Light vehicle. Fully viscous 3-D (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS) computations were used to predict the stator forces, velocity field and rotor response. The RANS inflow was then computed and used as velocity boundary conditions during rotor blade design using potential flow methods. Blade parameters including blade number, rake, skew and a combination of the two were varied to characterize their effects and optimized to minimize unsteady forces and maximize side forces. RANS was used to then validate the final propulsor design. Final results of this design will be presented.
Compact, Broadband LF Sonar Transducers using Piezoelectric Single Crystals
Dr. Harold Robinson, Naval Undersea Warfare Center (Division Newport), United States
Lowering the frequency range of single crystal transducers using the 33-mode presents extremely difficult challenges for transducer manufacturing. The use of <110>-poled PMN-PT single crystal in the 31-mode can lower drive and bias voltages and simplify construction with minimal impact on transducer effective coupling, size and bandwidth. Therefore, the 31-mode presents an attractive option for broadband sonar performance at lower frequencies. This talk will present two cylinder transducer demonstrations using 31-mode wedges for low frequency applications. The first transducer, built by Progeny Systems of Middletown, RI, uses four rings constructed purely from crystal wedges with approximate dimensions 0.7”x0.7”x0.1”. The resonance frequency of this transducer is 3.5 times lower than the 33-mode cylinder transducers previously presented at ONR Workshops, but retains an effective coupling of 0.83 and a power factor bandwidth of 2 octaves. Using the same crystal wedges but interleaving them with alumina wedges produces a transducer with a resonance frequency 6.5 times lower than the previous 33-mode designs. This transducer, built by Ultra Electronics Ocean Systems of Braintree, MA, and the largest single crystal transducer ever constructed, exhibited an in-water effective coupling of 0.83 and a Stansfield bandwidth of 1.75 octaves. [This work sponsored by ONR and PEO-IWS5A.]
Collaborative Environment Engineered Resilient System
Dr. Lynn Ewart, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, United States
Steven Aguiar, Dr. Robert Wallace
What will the Engineered Resilient System look like? With so many software pieces and parts, it has been difficult to conceptualize how ERS will function as a cohesive software system and what types of questions will it answer. This question was posed to a research team comprised of members from both the Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) and the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC). The result was a conceptual prototype system that incorporates all of the various pieces of the ERS. This presentation documents how one realization of ERS may function.
The result of this exercise was a conceptual interface that links a collaborative capability of a virtual world (VW) with the high fidelity simulations developed by high performance computing (HPC). In the context of this scenario, the interface will allow the Virtual World to be used to visualize part of a notional weapon system life-cycle, specifically the problem scenario, a multi-solution exploration, and a trade-space analysis. This will allow users to visually depict trade-space evolution in a geo-spatial representation and allowing participants not only to query a particular trade-space but actually immerse themselves into the 3-D simulation either as an observer or as a participant. In particular, the DoD HPC, commanded through geographically distributed participants in the VW on DREN, will batch-generate high fidelity bathymetric data and water velocity data across a wide range of environmental conditions that would impact AUV performance. The data is fed into an external AUV model to determine the impact of the environmental conditions on its performance. The VW Simulation Space then provides the visual integration of the HPCC data, the AUV model behavior, and the mission context across the trade-space boundaries of interest.
Autonomous underwater vehicles for naval missions
Mr. Edward Gough, Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation, Italy
Unmanned underwater systems require very different capabilities than unmanned aerial vehicles. Among these required capabilities is much higher level of autonomy. Adaptive behaviors are a must when these systems deal with the challenges of undersea warfare including ASW and MCM. Missions will require these systems to collaborate with a heterogeneous network of autonomous systems and manned assets. These missions will deal with a priori uncertain environments that may degrade sensor and communication system performance. The Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) is NATO’s premier establishment for the development of science and technology solutions to the Alliance’s maritime challenges. Founded more than 50 years ago, the recent emphasis on robotic systems underwater and at the surface is paying off with successful demonstrations validating autonomous systems. In MCM, the MUSCLE vehicle with its high resolution synthetic aperture sonar, NVIDIA GPU for onboard sonar processing, EVOLOGICS underwater modem and MOOS (Mission Oriented Operating Suite) has been outperforming traditional mine hunting systems. In ASW, the CMRE Ocean Explorers (OEX) with some of the same communications and autonomous decision systems as the MUSCLE along with towed arrays have demonstrated cooperative behaviors for sustained tracking of targets using multistatic sonar. This presentation will conclude with some thoughts about future capabilities.
Combining Active and Passive Processing for Improved Sonar Target Classification
Mr. Kevin Goodell, Naval Undersea Warfare Center (Division Newport), United States
This paper presents the result of work conducted to date to enhance the ability to classify sonar targets using both the active return as well as the passive energy available between the initial ping emission and the return echo. The work is geared toward reducing the nuisance and false alarm rates in swimmer defense sonar. One of the major focus areas is in properly classifying biologics including fish and schools of fish. Through the use of acoustic windows attempts were made to extract features that are specific to divers and fish. The preliminary results of the algorithms will be presented and areas where future work could benefit diver detection will be discussed. The algorithm development work was based upon data obtained from an active sonar system currently under development by the U.S. Navy for swimmer defense. The data sets included open circuit divers, surface swimmers, and biologics present in the test area.
Modular Hoistable Masts for Conventional Submarines
Mr. Bernhard Krueger, Gabler Maschinenbau GmbH, Germany
The sensor equipment being installed on hoistable masts, plays a key role in the capabilities of submarines. In order to be more flexible and modular with respect to the equipment, GABLER offers new types of hoistable masts with the possibility of interchanging the payload (sensors) much easier.
Two Gabler hoistable masts solution will be highlighted:
The first is the so-called standard mast, which generally is a rectangular shaft guided hoistable mast. A number of different shaft sizes takes account of housing various sensors of different sizes, but in one same shaft size it is possible to incorporate diverse sensors of comparable sizes. This makes it easy and cost effective to install different sensor types e.g. in sister ships to increase the overall capability range of a flotilla, or to change the sensors over the live span of a boat;
The second solution is GABLERs Modular Multi-Purpose Mast TRIPLE M. This system features a containerised solution for integrating new, unconventional sensors and effectors in a hoistable mast.
This system not only extends the range of possible sensors far beyond the existing equipment of submarines, but also allows for mission oriented modularity, as the modules can be interchanged rapidly due to standardized interfaces.
Early Design Naval Systems-of-Systems Assessment
Mrs Mona Khoury, Ministry of Defence (DGA), France
A methodology of global evaluation of a system of systems (SoS) is presented through the case of mine countermeasure system.
The aim is to get an assessment of overall efficiency in early design phase. Both the architecture of the constituents of the SoS and the overall architecture are taken into account.
SoS is constituted of a mother ship and different kinds of unmanned vehicles (air, surface and underwater).
Different architectures are compared. As we are in early design phase, only analytical models are operated and we use levels of performances on a scale one to ten.
Mine counter measure efficiency is put in balance with survivability capabilities.
Assessment of mine counter measure efficiency: a global efficiency is calculated taking into account the sensors performances, the mobility performances of the different unmanned vehicles, the duration of logistics operations, … .
Assessment of survivability capabilities: both a technical aspect (based on the characteristics of the architecture) and a tactical aspect (based on stand-off concept) are taken into account to assess a global survivability capability. This analysis is completed by cost criteria and TRL (technology readiness level) criteria.
Unexploded Ordnance: The Next Boom In Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Employment
Dr. Rand LeBouvier, Bluefin Robotics Corporation, United States
The recent boom in the acquisition and use of AUVs for commercial oil, gas and mineral exploration will soon be accompanied by another – The use of AUVs in the discovery and remediation of unexploded ordnance (UXO) worldwide. While the breadth of the problem posed by UXO has been studied extensively and is being actively engaged by such organization as the hague, the Helsinki Commission, and united nations committee on sea dumped weapons, limitations on funding and limited publicity regarding the efficacy of AUVs in this work have prevented wider demonstration and use to date. Now, the efforts of UXO agencies are bearing fruit and particularly due to the leadership of Poland, Lithuania, and Germany in publicizing and characterizing the extent of the UXO problem, opportunities for the use of AUVs to identify, quantify, study, and mitigate UXO effects are proliferating.